We are trying to identify promising routes of new treatments, novel diagnostic tools and more accurate predictions. We need to identify, collect and evaluate existing data across animal and human data and synthesise these data.

A template protocol has been developed for a review aiming to evaluate associations. This a single template for the review of human and non-human studies, and includes instructions about how to evaluate the confidence in the evidence that these two study designs provide, and describes the planning of a triangulation meeting. A template protocol has also been developed for a review aiming to generate hypotheses. In such a review, identifying a mediator is just one step toward determining a mechanism. The two template protocols can be downloaded here:


Human and non-human studies will produce two different types of evidence. As their respective systematic errors and biases are unrelated, we will consider their results together in terms of direction and strength to reach a conclusion (triangulation).


At a triangulation meeting, the evidence will be presented by the author team before review by an expert panel (including members of the GALENOS team, international experts, researchers, clinicians and people with lived experience). Summary of evidence tables for each outcome, alongside risk of bias will be provided prior to the meeting.

Living Systematic Review (LSR)